Military & Aerospace

The silent use of hard power
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Issue Vol 26.1 Jan-Mar 2011 | Date : 04 Jun , 2011


  1. John Lee, ‘Unrealized Potential: India’s ‘Soft Power’ Ambition in Asia’, Center for Independent Studies, Foreign Policy Analysis No. 4, 30 June 2010, accessed online at’s%20Soft%20Power%20Ambition%20in%20Asia.pdf, on 5 December 2010.
  2. Andrew Billen, ‘The day Maggie won the 1980s’, The New Statesman, 29 July 2002, accessed online at, on 5 December 2010.
  3. B. Raman, ‘Nemesis Catches up With Father of Mass Casualty Terrorism & Mentor of LTTE - International Terrorism Monitor: Paper No. 369’, South Asia Analysis Group, 15 February 2008, accessed online at, on 5 December 2010.
  4. The JOE 2008: Challenges and Implications for the Future Joint Force, p. 36. Accessed at, on 11 November 2010.
  5. Jacques E.C. Hymans, `India’s Soft Power and Vulnerability’, India Review, Vol. 8, No. 3 (2009), p. 246.
  6. Christian Wagner, `From Hard Power to Soft Power?’, South Asia Institute, University of Heidelberg, Working Paper No. 26, March 2005, accessed online at, on 5 December 2010.
  7. Ajit Doval, `Need for Discovering New Paradigms to Fight Terrorism’, Eternal India, Vol. 1, No. 1 (2008), pp. 26-28.
  8. S. Kalyanaraman, `India and the Challenge of Terrorism in the Hinterland’, Strategic Analysis, Vol. 34, No. 5 (2010), p. 712.
  9. Thomas Matussek, ‘The Shy Superpower: India’s cautious role in a multipolar world’, Internationale Politik (Global edition), 11 November 2010, accessed online at, on 5 December 2010.
  10. It appears from the writings of some American scholars that the Cold Start Doctrine is viewed with considerable concern in the West. Evidently, these writers are more worried about preventing an Indian retaliatory offensive against Pakistan than about the effect that another jihadist attack could have upon inter-communal harmony within India. Quinn J. Rhodes, ‘Limited War Under the Nuclear Umbrella: An Analysis of India’s Cold Start Doctrine and its Implications for Stability on the Subcontinent’, US Naval Postgraduate School, June 2010, accessed online at, on 5 December 2010.
  11. Stevan Dedijer, ‘Ragusa Intelligence and Security (1301-1806): A Model for the Twenty-First Century?’, International Journal of Intelligence and CounterIntelligence, Vol. 15, No. 1 (2002), p. 110.
  12. Amos Guinora, ‘Targeted Killing as Active Self-Defense’, Case Western Reserve Journal of International Law, Vol. 36 (2004), pp. 323-324.
  13. Om M. Jahagirdar, `Targeted killing, not assassination: the legal case for the United States to kill terrorist leaders’, Journal of Islamic Law and Culture, Vol. 10, No. 2 (2008), pp. 243-244.
  14. Author’s conversations with Western officials and academics, 2008-2010.
  15. Report of the United Nations Commission of Inquiry into the facts and circumstances of the assassination of former Pakistani Prime Minister Mohtarma Benazir Bhutto, accessed online at, on 5 December 2010.
  16. Ahmed Rashid, Descent into Chaos: How the war against Islamic extremism is being lost in Pakistan, Afghanistan and Central Asia (London: Penguin, 2008), p. 16.
  17. Peter Mascini, ‘Can the Violent Jihad Do without Sympathizers’, Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, Vol. 29, No. 4 (2006), pp. 345-346.
  18. Ray Takeyh, `The Rogue Who Came in From the Cold‘, Foreign Affairs, Vol. 80, No. 3 (2001), p. 64.
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The views expressed are of the author and do not necessarily represent the opinions or policies of the Indian Defence Review.

About the Author

Dr Prem Mahadevan

is a strategic affairs analyst at a leading think-tank, based in Western Europe.

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