Chinese ‘Cartographic Offensive’ is a Part of its ‘Three Warfare Strategy’, but India is Firm!
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Issue Net Edition | Date : 30 Aug , 2023


The 2023 edition of the standard map of China, released by the Ministry of Natural Resources, Peoples Republic of China (PRC) is neither the first attempt to illegally document unilateral claim on sovereign territories of other countries, nor the last one. It has been published by design to documentarily justify its illegal claims by launching a cartographic offensive. It forms part of ‘Legal Warfare’ as a component of ‘Three Warfare Strategy’ as an attempt to produce legal justification of its illegal claims.

Cartographic Offensive

The 2023 edition of the standard map of China released on 28 August 2023 illegally shows Arunachal Pradesh and Aksai Chin (which is integral part of India) in Chinese territory, besides showing South China Sea and Taiwan too as Chinese territory. India has already launched diplomatic protest and its fair to assume that such act must have caused discomfort amongst other claimants of South China Sea, Taiwan and other users of South China Sea too. The other part of this cartographic aggression is giving Chinese names to places in other countries, where it extends its illegal claims. Although it is quite certain that such an act, in isolation, does not change anything on ground, but the intention, timing and strategy behind such repeated acts is worth an analysis.

Why New Map Now?

The map has been released ten days prior to G20 Summit. China anticipates that the intention of many countries in G20 is to criticize aggression and encroachments by large countries be it Russian kinetic operation in Ukraine or China’s incremental encroachment in South China Sea, East China Sea or Taiwanese air and maritime space. The illegal maps released by China so far (including the current one) form the basis to build the background for ‘legal war’ to claim that all its activities are purely defensive to protect its own sovereign territory. That would be China’s stance in G20 or any possible bilateral between China and India, if it happens!

It is also an attempt to put the opposite side on defensive on negotiation table by adopting a maximal position in the beginning. The conversation between President Xi Jinping and Prime Minister Modi during BRICS Summit 2023 reported by Chinese media statedagreed to maintain the momentum of dialogue and negotiations through military and diplomatic channels”, indicating no commitment of disengagement. The map release therefore is a smart move to score a point to derail negotiations or disengagement. A subtle attempt to divert attention of Chinese people from economic downslide by such gimmicks can’t be ruled out.

Chinese Strategy of Three Warfare

The above example of legal warfare is part of ‘Chinese Strategy of Three Warfare. China introduced this strategy comprising of the concepts of public opinion warfare, psychological warfare, and legal warfare, when it revised the “Political Work Guidelines of the People’s Liberation Army” in 2003. The Three Warfare Strategy’s objective is to win by suppressing the enemy’s desire to fight or, in Sun Tzu’s words, “winning without fighting.” Through deceit, diplomatic pressure, information operations involving rumors, false narratives, and harassment, it is intended to influence the decision-making of the adversary. Illegal maps like the one shown above give reality to psychological warfare and propaganda, which are frequently employed to weaken the resolve of the enemy and secure the support of the home population to wage a protracted war.

How does it Impact China-India Border Situation?

Notwithstanding the optics of ‘Modi – Xi Jinping Conversation’ in BRICS Summit 2023, this illegal map further increases the trust deficit between the two countries, and no change in ground position is anticipated. The political intentions of China is to continue the standoff, put in façade of talking with no results, hoping that the existing positions become new normal with passage of time, even if India continues to say “India-China relations cannot be normal unless border situation is.

India on the other hand has learnt not to believe China and will continue to firmly defend its position on borders and its territorial integrity. Both sides will have to bear the burden of additional deployment until India can generate some more leverages in multi-dimensional powerplay along with other strategic partners. Unless the political cost of not resolving border tension becomes more than resolving it, for China, the possibility of normal relations is remote.

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The views expressed are of the author and do not necessarily represent the opinions or policies of the Indian Defence Review.

About the Author

Maj Gen SB Asthana

is a Strategic and Security Analyst, a Veteran Infantry General with 40 years experience in National & International Fields and UN. A globally acknowledged strategic & military writer/analyst authored over 350 publications. Interviewed by various National and International news channels/newspapers/organisations. Currently Chief Instructor, USI of India, the oldest Indian Think-tank in India. On Governing/Security Council CEE, IOED, IPC, ITVMNN and other UN Organisations. On Advisory Board of SWEDINT, member EPON. Expert Group Challenges Forum, Former Additional Director General Infantry. Awarded twice by President of India, United Nations, former Prime Minister Maldova and Governor of Haryana.

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