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India's Civil-Military Dissonance: Playing with Nation’s Security
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Admiral Arun Prakash (Retd.)
Former Chief of the Naval Staff of the Indian Navy, Chairman Chiefs of Staff Committee and author of From the Crow’s Nest.

India’s Republic Day on Tuesday (January 26) was celebrated with traditional pageantry and the citizen gets a panoramic view of the country’s military capability. Intelligence inputs warn that it will be yet another test for the national security apparatus. However, it provides an opportune occasion to objectively review how India has dealt with its complex security challenges. Regrettably in India’s National Security ‘Hall of Shame’ we can now add, ‘Pathankot 2016’ after ‘Kandahar 1999’, ‘Parakram 2002’ and ‘Mumbai 2008.’ 

Given that India is a nuclear weapon state, which fields one of the world’s largest armed forces and spends upwards of $40 billion annually on defence, one cringes at accounts of our seemingly inept handling of yet another terrorist attack. Equally disheartening is the fact that, eight years after 26/11, we lack the ability to deter the architects of this attack, and the will to punish its perpetrators.

It is a matter of sheer good fortune that the cross-border terrorists who managed to enter the Pathankot air base failed to target aircraft, helicopters and missiles as well as the huge bomb-dump and fuel-storage facilities. We overlook the fact that some of our air bases, adjuncts to the nuclear deterrent, may also house nuclear warhead components. So, while cautioning the world about the dangers of Pakistani warheads falling into jihadist hands, we need to ensure that a similar fate does not befall our own.

The calibre of a nation’s leadership is tested by a crisis. Whether it is floods, an aircraft hijacking or a terror strike. India’s response to any crisis has followed a depressingly familiar sequence. Regardless of intelligence inputs, the onset of a crisis finds multiple agencies pulling in different directions, lacking unitary leadership, coordination and, above all, a cohesive strategy. Ad-hoc and sequential damage-control measures eventually bring the situation under control, with loss of life and national self-esteem. After a free-wheeling blame-game, the state apparatus relapses into its comatose state – till the next disaster.

From the media discourse, it appears that this template was faithfully followed in the Pathankot episode. While the military has due processes for learning from its mistakes and dealing with incompetence, one is not sure about the rest of our security system.

Whether or not India-Pakistan peace talks are resumed, the Pakistani ‘deep state’ has many more ‘Pathankots’ in store for India. For Pakistan’s Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI), cross-border terrorism is an inexpensive method of keeping India off-balance. The strategy of plausible deniability and threat of nuclear ‘first-use’ assures them of impunity from retribution. Such situations call for all components of India’s national security, military, intelligence, bureaucracy, central and state police forces to work in the closest synergy and coordination. Regrettably, civil-military relations have, of late, been deeply vitiated and the resultant dissonance could have adverse consequences for the nation’s security.

What is worse; civil-military recriminations, so far, confined within the walls of South Block, seem to be proliferating. Post-Pathankot, the constabulary has jumped into the fray and, if an intemperately-worded newspaper article (Indian Express, January 13) by a serving Indian Police Service (IPS) officer is an indicator, civil-military relations may be entering a downward spiral. This outburst should compel the political leadership to undertake a re-appraisal of the prevailing civil-military equation which contains many anomalies; one of them being the role of the police forces.

Worldwide, an unmistakable distinction is maintained between the appearance and functions of the military and civilian police, the latter being charged with the maintenance of law and order, crime prevention/investigation and traffic regulation et al. India’s unique security compulsions have seen the Indian Police Service (IPS) not only retaining the colonial legacy of sporting army rank badges and star plates but also garnering unusual influence in national security matters over the years.

Many of our Central Armed Police Forces (CAPFs) have blurred the distinction between police and military; terming themselves ‘para-militaries’, with constables wearing military style combat fatigues and being addressed as ‘jawans’. There are only three, duly constituted, para-military forces in India: the Coast Guard, Assam Rifles and the Special Frontier Force; all headed by armed forces officers. The five CAPFs, namely BSF, CRPF, ITBP, CISF and SSB – cumulatively over a million strong – are headed by IPS officers.

The deployment of CAPFs in border-guarding as well as counter-insurgency roles calls for military (read infantry) skills; for which neither the police constables nor officers receive adequate training. This lack of training and motivation as well as a leadership deficit has manifested itself in: (a) these forces repeatedly suffering heavy casualties (confined only to constables) in Maoist ambushes; and (b) recurring instances of infiltration taking place across borders guarded by CAPFs.

In the case of the anti-terrorist National Security Guard (NSG), its combat capability comes from the army; yet, by government mandate, it is headed by a police officer. The fact that this elite force has seen 28 directors general in 31 years makes one wonder if round holes are being filled by square pegs.

A second anomaly in the civil-military matrix pertains to the fact that the Government of India Rules of Business has designated the civilian secretary heading the defence ministry as the functionary responsible “for the defence of India and for the armed forces”. Since no military officer, including the three chiefs, finds mention in the Business Rules, the Service HQs are subaltern to a 100 percent civilian ministry. Every major decision – whether it pertains to finance, acquisition, manpower or organization – requires a ministry nod which can take decades.

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A false and dangerous belief prevails on Raisina Hill that civil-military relations constitute a zero-sum game in which ‘civilian control’ is best retained by boosting the bureaucracy and police at the expense of the military. Post-independence, the civil-military balance has been steadily skewed by pushing the military officer well below his civilian counterparts with the same years of service. This has caused deep resentment in the military, and the resultant hierarchical distortion could lead to a civil-military logjam – the last thing the nation needs at this juncture.

It is high time the Indian politician shed his traditional indifference to national security issues and took tangible measures to ensure a stable and equitable civil-military paradigm – one which ensures a say for the military in matters impinging on the nation’s safety and security. Until that happens, the Republic Day parade will remain a vainglorious display of hardware and pageantry – and the nation’s security in parlous straits.


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The views expressed are of the author and do not necessarily represent the opinions or policies of the Indian Defence Review.

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7 thoughts on “India’s Civil-Military Dissonance: Playing with Nation’s Security

  1. Admiral Prakash has written a brilliantly cogent, comprehensible, and compelling article, urging the politicians to take action expeditiously.
    Like a stork with its head in the sand, feigning a problem does not exist is really foolhardy.
    Are our civilians ever going to learn?
    Or do we blunder from one crisis to the next?

  2. In every democracy civilians rule over armed forces.In civil services also it is the collector who rules over the Police in hierarchy districts and Chief secretary over DGPs. That is why in civil sercises exam, the best are selected for IFS, then IAS and then the IPS. In Armed forces also Infantry rules over all other support services while In airforce it is the pilots who rule over all other supporting arms.As for expertise one saw nearly 200 strong MARCOS could not tackle 6 odd terrorists holed up in Taj and it is only NSG from Delhi who could tackle them. The recent terrorist attacks in Paris and Jakartha were handled by local police who were well trained and India must disabnd NSG and make every state have NSGs of their own on the same level of training. If only Indira Gandhi listened to Manekshaw we would not have won 1971 war. It is her direct dealing with Lt.Gen Aurora and jacab and taking over of Dacca was accomplished.Our democracy is functioning well and in Pathankot it is failure of perimeter security .What worriesome is 160NSG commandoes could not tackle4 terrorists holed up in a building for nearly 2 days and finally the building has to be blown up..

  3. Yes admiral and bravo yet again an armed forces officer has dumped the fault on bureaucracy which is the easiest thing to do all is well within the forces right? How are engineers recruited in forces based on a aptitude test right and doctors are not given PSO positions when discrepancy and discrimination exists in your own back yard then first correct them instead of blaming everyone else

  4. Very well written article but will it reach the ears of those who matter? The fear of Pakistan-type military supremacy has been the most important factor that has traditionally used to push down the military. Unfortunately the IPS of CAPF try to emulate armed forces but fell flat every time. The Pathankot fiasco is the example of the quest for supremacy where again the Babudom failed miserably. By putting on army-style fatigues and combat dress cannot bring the skill and abilities automatically. Our political bosses are oblivious of the crises in making as armed force’s avenues for dialogue with political leadership has become narrow as never before and also the Chief being “yes men” is another sad state of affairs.

  5. Well written.Unfortunately,putting square pegs in round holes is a problem created by Babus to ensure their supremacy.Coup was the another bug planted in the minds of Netas.Thank God the P.M. at last got to their tricks and taking some corrective action as otherwise they were also awarded for their incompetence.All the corrupted lot got together and looted the country.For hardware,hardly any substantial amount was left for latest weapons.Decades have been spent to procure latest combat systems.Taxpayer is paying for the incompetence through its nose.

    • One of the best pakitan experts in India were ips officers and let me tell you if the armed forces are so purtubed then why don’t the chief challenge the political authority they should say that if you don’t give what we want we will resign en mass but no

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