During the hostilities, India had appealed to friendly countries for assistance who responded generously. Britain and the United States were the major contributors. After the cease-fire, the two countries agreed to supply, in a phased programme over the next three years, small — arms and other equipment for refurbishing the Army – mainly non-combat equipment and stores for the mountain divisions.
While accepting this aid, the Indian Government took steps for the establishment of an infrastructure within the country for the manufacture of such equipment. The Western powers were not alone in supplying arms and equipment to India. She had earlier bought some transport planes from the Soviets and had entered into a contract with them for the supply of MiG-21 fighter aircraft and for their manufacture within the country.
After the UN-sponsored cease-fire had come into effect on 1 January 1949, Pakistan had not complied with the terms of the cease-fire agreement. Also, Pakistans leaders had taken every opportunity to declare their determination to annex Kashmir, whatever the means
An important step towards streamlining the field command set-up was the creation of Central Command, with Headquarters at Lucknow. Simultaneously, the Headquarters of Eastern Command was moved to Calcutta, nearer its area of responsibility. The change relieved this operational command of a good deal of administrative work connected with static units and installations located in Central India.
Several measures were adopted to ensure the development of the Army on scientific lines and to improve its effectiveness. Among these may be mentioned the reorganization at Army Headquarters, the expansion and strengthening of the Military Intelligence Directorate, the setting up of a Directorate of Combat Development and the introduction of a Commando Course for officers.7
Surface and air communications were improved, and ordnance factories were modernized and expanded. To cater for the officer requirements of an Academy, the Officers’ Training School and the Army Cadet College were expanded. The capacity of the High Altitude Warfare School was also enlarged and steps were taken to impart intensive jungle warfare training to units committed to the defence of the North-East region.
A major change that occurred as a result of the reorganization of the Army was the cutting down of its ‘tail’ to strengthen its ‘teeth’. Speaking of the change, Chaudhuri says: “I exiled all superfluous units from our Order of Battle”. To rebuild morale, Chaudhuri travelled extensively and spoke to the men. He would, at every opportunity, tell them “that there was a big black mark on their faces, which water alone won’t wash out and there was only one thing that could wash it out–blood”.8
India’s relations with Pakistan came up for discussion while negotiations were under way with the United States and Britain for the supply of arms and equipment. The two countries suggested a rapprochement between India and Pakistan. There could be no doubt that friendship between the two neighbours would enable them to face external threats more effectively. However, the main hurdle in the way of amity was Pakistan’s attitude towards Jammu & Kashmir. Pakistan had supported the tribal invasion of the state in 1947 and had later sent her regular forces to fight Indian troops engaged in expelling the invader.
The state of Jammu & Kashmir being Indian territory by virtue of its accession, the Indian Government protested vigorously that Pakistan had no right to negotiate regarding territory that did not belong legally to her.
After the UN-sponsored cease-fire had come into effect on 1 January 1949, Pakistan had not complied with the terms of the cease-fire agreement. Also, Pakistan’s leaders had taken every opportunity to declare their determination to annex Kashmir, whatever the means.
Despite all this, India agreed to discuss the question. Several meetings were held between 27 December 1962 and 16 May 1963. However, Pakistan rejected every proposal put forward by India to resolve the dispute and it became clear that she wanted India to present Kashmir to her on a platter.
The failure of the talks led to a worsening of the relations between the two countries. The Hazratbal incident of December 1963 set off serious riots in Srinagar.9 There was a chain reaction in East Pakistan and later in Calcutta. Many lives were lost and a two-way flight of refugees began. It was estimated that about 700,000 crossed from (East) Pakistan to India in the first nine months of 1964.10
There had been a shift in Pakistan’s foreign policy for some years. As the reader is aware, she had entered into two US-sponsored military pacts – SEATO and CENTO – in the mid-fifties. The aim of these alliances was the containment of communist power in the region. However, towards the close of 1959, Pakistan changed her stance and began to woo China, one of the countries against which these alliances had been directed.
The shift came in the wake of the border dispute between India and China; the reason was obvious. In the years that followed, the two countries came closer to each other, though this was initially looked upon with disfavour by the United States.11 Agreements for trade and cultural relations were followed by large-scale military supplies to Pakistan. These included tanks and aircraft.
Pakistan-Occupied Kashmir and Chinese Sinkiang have a 480-kilometre common border. Early Chinese maps showed a large portion of the Pakistan-occupied territory as theirs. On 23 October 1959, President Ayub Khan of Pakistan announced that his country intended to negotiate an agreement with China in respect of this border. China, however, ignored this overture till January 1961, when she agreed to discuss the question.
The treaty altered the geopolitical situation in the region to Indias disadvantage. It gave China increased influence over the strategic Karakoram Pass and in Hunza”¦
The state of Jammu & Kashmir being Indian territory by virtue of its accession, the Indian Government protested vigorously that Pakistan had no right to negotiate regarding territory that did not belong legally to her. China deferred negotiations for a year thereafter, obviously to avoid giving offence to India. However, when her attempts to settle the border dispute with India (on her own terms) failed, she sought an agreement with Pakistan. Negotiations began in the spring of 1962 and the signing of a treaty was announced on 2 March 1963.