Military & Aerospace
Indian Nuclear Command and Control - II
Notes and References
- See for instance, Rajesh Basrur. Minimum Deterrence and India’s Nuclear Security. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2006; and Manpreet Sethi. “Nuclear Command and Control: A Comparative Analysis of India, Pakistan and China.” India’s Comprehensive National Power: Synergy Through Joint Decision Making. New Delhi: CENJOWS, 2010.
- Shaun Gregory. Nuclear Command and Control in NATO. London, MacMillan Press, 1996. pp. 3–4.
- Robert Osgood. Nuclear Control in NATO. Washington D.C.: Washington Center for Foreign Policy Research, 1962. p. 21.
- Shaun Gregory’s book Nuclear Command and Control in NATO has five pages of acronyms.
- This stands for command, control, communications and computers, intelligence, information, surveillance and reconnaissance.
- Peter D. Feaver. “Command and Control in Emerging Nuclear Nations.” International Security 17, no. 3. p. 162.
- For a history of the nuclear era, see L. Freedman. Evolution of Nuclear Strategy. London: Palgrave Macmillan, 1989.
- Arnold Toynbee. A Study of History, vol 1. London: Oxford University Press, 1961. pp. 191–195.
- This is defined as “the phenomenon that weapons and military strategies begin to look the same across the world” by J. Pretorius in his article “The Security Imaginary: Explaining Military Isomorphism.” Security Dialogue 39, no. 1. March 2008.
- Rajesh Basrur. Minimum Deterrence and India’s Nuclear Security. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2006. p. 172.
- Op cit, n. 6, p. 163.
- The National Security Council was established by the National Security Act of 1947 and amended by the National Security Act Amendments of 1949 as per the White House website <http://www.whitehouse.gov/administration/eop/nsc/>.
- For a contrast, see Rajesh Basrur. South Asia’s Cold War: Nuclear Weapons and Conflict in Comparative Perspective. New York: Routledge, 2008.
- Ministry of External Affairs. “Draft Report of National Security Advisory Board on Indian Nuclear Doctrine.” 1999. <http://meadev.nic.in/govt/indnucld.htm>.
- See official website at <http://www.icc-cpi.int/menus/icc>.
- The term “strategic enclave” has been coined by Itty Abraham, India’s “Strategic Enclave”: Civilian Scientists and Military Technologies.” Armed Forces and Society 18, no. 2.
- K. Bajpai. “The Indian Nuclear Debate.” Edited by R. Samaddard. Peace Studies: An Introduction to Concept, Scope and Theme. New Delhi: Sage, 2004, p. 353.
- K. Sundarji. “Nuclear Deterrence: Doctrine For India.” Trishul VI, no. 1, 1992. pp. 83–84.
- The White House website <http://www.whitehouse.gov/administration/eop/nsc/> informs that the U.S. system comprises the NSC chaired by the president. Its regular attendees (both statutory and nonstatutory) are the vice president, the secretary of state, the secretary of the Treasury, the secretary of defense, and the assistant to the president for national security affairs. The chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff is the statutory military advisor to the council, and the director of National Intelligence is the intelligence advisor.
- Sagan, S. “The Perils of Proliferation: Organisation Theory, Deterrence Theory and the Spread of Nuclear Weapons.” International Security 18, no. 4, 1994.
- Ali Ahmed. “The illogic of ‘unacceptable damage.’’’ IPCS Article, http://www.ipcs.org/article/india/the-illogic-of-unacceptable-damage-2991.html.
- “Limited deterrence” is a term usually associated with the Chinese nuclear deterrent, which is reputed to have 300–400 nuclear weapons. India does not aim for parity with China. However, increase in numbers due to an elastic definition of “minimum” could result in a movement away from “minimum” deterrence.
- NSAB 1998–2000. “Draft Report of National Security Advisory Board on Indian Nuclear Doctrine.” http://meadev.nic.in/govt/indnucld.htm.
- *PMO Press Release. “Cabinet Committee On Security Reviews Progress In Operationalizing India’s Nuclear Doctrine. 2003. <http://pib.nic.in/archieve/lreleng/lyr2003/rjan2003/04012003/r040120033.html>
- In the NDA government period, the deputy chairman of the Planning Commission was also included in the NSC. This is not the case with the UPA government.
- See text of speech “India’s National Security Challenges” at a National Maritime Foundation event at <http://www.outlookindia.com/article.aspx?261738>.
- There is a greater degree of information of Pakistani systems. This owes to Pakistan feeling the need to demonstrate that it is in control of nuclear weapons in light of the terrorist threat to its systems.
- K. Subrahmanyam, editor. India and the Nuclear Challenge. New Delhi: Lancers, 1986. p. 259.
- For information on the NSC Act in the U.S., see A. G. Noorani. “Discipline and Decision Making” Frontline, 8 May 2004.
- Manpreet Sethi. “Nuclear Command and Control: A Comparative Analysis of India, Pakistan and China.” India’s Comprehensive National Power: Synergy Through Joint Decision Making. New Delhi: CENJOWS, 2010.
- Ali Ahmed. “Re-visioning the Nuclear Command Authority.” IDSA comments. <http://www.idsa.in/strategiccomments/RevisioningtheNuclearCommandAuthority_AliAhmed_090909>.
- See Group of Ministers’ recommendation on the issue, Chapter VI “Management of Defence.” Report of the Group of Ministers on National Security. New Delhi, pp. 100–102.
- The subpara in the Draft Nuclear Doctrine reads “5.3. For effective employment the unity of command and control of nuclear forces including dual capable delivery systems shall be ensured.”
- S. Varadarajan. “Fizzle’ claim for thermonuclear test refuted.” Hindu, 27 August 2009.
- Manpreet Sethi. Nuclear Strategy: India’s March Towards Credible Deterrence.” New Delhi: Knowledge World, 2009. p. 166.
- Robert Jervis. “Deterrence Theory Revisited.” World Politics 31, no. 2, 1979.
- Gurmeet Kanwal. Nuclear Defence: Shaping the Arsenal. New Delhi: Knowledge World, 2001. p.135.
- Ali Ahmed. “India’s Thermonuclear Test: Bombed?” IPCS article. <http://www.ipcs.org/article/india/indias-thermonuclear-test-bombed-2959.html>.
- S. Sasikumar. “India’s Nuclear Command and Control: Perspectives from Organisation Theory.” Strategic Analysis 34, no. 3, May 2010.
- Rafi uz Zaman Khan. “Nuclear Risk Reduction Centers.” Stimson Center. <http://www.stimson.org/images/uploads/research-pdfs/rafikhan.pdf>.
- Pakistan is reported to have 70–90 warheads as against India’s 60–80. See Rajat Pandit, “Pakistan’s nuke arsenal bigger than India’s.” Times of India, 3 June 2010.
- The nuclear complex is not covered by the parliamentary committees listed on the parliament website http://www.parliamentofindia.nic.in/ls/intro/p21.htm.
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