Germination of Pakistan - II
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Issue Book Excerpt: Reassessing Pakistan | Date : 03 Jun , 2011

Ghulam Abbas revived the Muslim Conference in 1941 with the support of the Muslim League. Approaches by Jinnah to Sheikh Abdullah to align with the revived party to present a single front of Muslims were rejected by Sheikh Abdullah. In 1944, he came out with his ‘New Kashmir’ programme, which placed its faith in secular politics rejecting the Muslim League philosophy of a communal approach. The question arises: if a two-nation theory operated in India, why did it fail to make an impact in J&K state? The answer is that no such theory was operating.

Book_reassessing_PakistanYet in Pakistan, awareness was generated that its birth was entirely due to the phenomenon of the two-nation theory. Its acceptance has penetrated the psyche of the people, particularly the ruling classes. Pakistan’s claims to the J&K state can be traced to their belief in this theory. The two-nation theory has a built-in component of deep-rooted antagonism towards the other ‘nation’, Hindus, now symbolised as India. There has been no mellowing of this antagonism during the 53 years that India and Pakistan have existed as independent countries. It seems difficult, therefore, not to come to a conclusion that a change for the better will not come about without a modification in the perceptions of Pakistan policy makers of this unnatural theory.


  1. S Irtiza Hussain: 'Genesis of Pakistan in Historical Perspective', Dawn, August 14, 2000.
  2. Romila Thapar: A History of India Vol. I P. 303, as quoted in 'India Pakistan, The History of Unsolved Conflicts' Vol. 1, Lars Blinkenberg, Odense University Press, 1998, p. 22.
  3. Saroosh Irfani: 'Progressive Islamic Movement', p.37 as quoted in 'Islam, Politics and the State: The Pakistan Experience', Ed. Asghar Khan, Zed Books Ltd. 1985.
  4. Percival Spear: 'A History of India' p. 225, quoted by Blinkenberg, p.31.
  5. Jawahar Lal Nehru: Discovery of India, p. 347, as quoted by Blinkenberg p. 31.
  6. The Encyclopaedia Britannica: 1962 Ed. Vol. 12, p. 173.
  7. Mohd Ali: 'Life: A Fragment' (Lahore: S.H. Ashraf 1946, p. 17-18) as quoted in 'Pakistan, A Nation in Making', Shahid Javed Burki, West View Press: Boulder and London, p. 16.
  8. Durga Das: 'India from Curzon to Nehru & after', pages 127-128 as quoted in Blinkenberg p. 34.
  9. Hector Bolitho: 'Jinnah, Creator of Pakistan' Oxford, 1954-69 p. 94, vide Blinkenberg p. 35.
  10. SJ Burki: 'Pakistan, A Nation in Making', p. 16.
  11. AM Zaidi: 'Evolution of Muslim Political Thought in India' Vol IV, p. 67, quoted in 'Islam, Politics and the State', ed. Asghar Khan, p.78.
  12. Ibid.
  13. Time and Tide: March 9, 1940 as quoted by Blinkenberg, p. 38.
  14. Qureshi: 'Pakistan Nationalism Reconsidered', Pacific Affairs (Winter 1972-73) p. 561, as quoted in "Politics in Pakistan: The Struggle for Legitimacy", West View Press, 1984, p. 50.
  15. Statement March 15, 1946, of Prime Minister CR Atlee quoted in "Pakistan Resolution to India" ed. Latif Ahmed Sherwani, Daya Publishing House, Delhi, p. 96.
  16. CH Phillip and MD Wainwright: 'Partition of India', p. 32, quoted from 'Islam, Politics and State' ed. Asghar Khan, p. 169.
  17. Times of India, Sept. 19, 2000.
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About the Author

Anand K Verma

Former Chief of R&AW and author of Reassessing Pakistan.

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